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Commercially available tools either support a variety of pro- gramming languages or are specifically designed for a certain language. Generic tools that support multiple languages, on the other hand, are more ap- propriate for working with a variety of programming languages. PC-Lint offers an entry- level method of quality as- surance on PCs. They offer comprehensive customiza- tion features and can also generate metric information as well as graphical repre- sentations of code.

Their big strengths include checking for bad pointers and memory leak- age. In addition, they allow you to test the concurrent operation and integration of mod- ules, check operation after a bug has been fixed, and perform stress tests.

There are two approaches to dynamic testing. One class of tools includes a compiler and uses source-code information to flag problems as it compiles. Another type of dynamic-testing tool checks the run-time behavior of executables. Of course, a tool that checks source code has access to more information and can therefore do checks that are more thor- w.

The disadvantage of this approach is that it requires access to source code, which may not be avail- able if you use third-party libraries. Instead, it treats con- tiguously allocated storage as a single memory item. Is More Testing Needed? How do you know how much testing has been done and how much more is still needed?

There are a couple of techniques for measuring test coverage. Statement coverage counts how many of the total statements in the application are execut- ed. An interesting side effect of percent statement coverage is that it helps pro- grammers find statements that can never be executed.

This is because defining test procedures to execute a given statement makes developers look at an application Testing Java Applications W hen granularity [of components] be- comes so tiny [as when testing Java applications], the problems of integration testing are enormous,” says Jeffrey Voas, chief scientist with Reliable Software Tech- nologies Sterling, VA , a software research and consulting company. Testing Java applications is difficult be- cause developers are forced to test applets on each configuration that they plan to sup- port.

This includes the different implementa- tions of Java virtual machines VMs -brows- ers as well as compilers. SunTest, a subsidiary of Sun Microsystems, has introduced a suite of tools that helps developers not only gain certification but also perform overall quality testing. JavaPureCheck checks that class files are indeed portable. It measures specified classes against a rule base.

These errors and explanations are kept in a database that creates reports. You can download this tool for free from the SunTest Web site. JavaSpin tests Java applications at run time. JavaScope is a coverage-analysis tool that includes method, branch, logical, and relational coverage i.

The current release does not support statement coverage, however. JavaStar is a GUI record and playback tool. It includes a scripting language and com- pares the behavior of the program under test with the expected behavior. JavaSpec uses the formal specifications of an API to automatically generate test pro- grams. Developers can verify that an imple- mentation of an API follows its written spec- ification. It unavoidably leads to the question: Is this statement necessary?

Some programmers say they remove al- most 30 percent of the statements they find through this procedure. Path coverage , on the other hand, cal- culates the number of paths through an application. Achieving percent path coverage for any but the simplest code requires enormous resources. In practice, you can use path-coverage measures only to check the testing level of the critical portions of an application.

Some tools insert code to flag that a statement or path has been executed to obtain coverage information, a process called instrumentation. The big problem with instrumentation is that it involves memory and CPU overhead. Fully instru- mented programs typically run up to three times slower than noninstrument- ed ones.

A good decision for software test- ing is, therefore, to completely instrument only critical portions of a program. Large sources and complex applica- tions are naturally harder to test than soft- ware with simple functionality. Software metrics is one way of measuring the vol- ume and complexity of an application.

This procedure looks at the structure and linkage between the larger software build- ing blocks rather than at the level of state- ments and expressions. Easy Access to Equipment.

Features such as open- backed work centers, Pull-out Tower Shelves, and lockable casters provide maximum accessibility to your equipment. Modular Design. Customize your LANscape O rganizer from a comprehensive line of modular components. Interchangeable parts allow you to easily reconfigure as your needs change. Strength and Stability. Modules can hold up to 2,kg of hardware.

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Long-Term Value. The most com- plex and hardest-to-test modules of a program typically have the highest met- ric values. Once you locate potential trou- ble spots, you can break these modules down or rewrite the parts of a program that exceed predefined metric limits. Inter- estingly, many metrics correlate very high- ly to the number of noncommented lines of code. When evaluating a new software metric, always ask how accurate its pre- dictions have been on historical data and to what extent it correlates with simple lines of code measurements.

You can also use metrics to estimate such things as the number of bugs likely remaining in code, the ease of software portability, or future maintenance costs. Networking products were totally new in Taiwan when we entered the industry in We’re ready to serve you! United Stales: Lantech International! But the extent to which this is possible in prac- tice varies enormously. When evaluating tools, always send the vendors a variety of code samples to process.

Metrics: Not all tools give the same fig- ures for the same metrics. When evaluat- ing tools, ask vendors to process some code for which you have calculated the metrics by hand. The subsequent discus- sion of their results will be revealing. In addition, some metrics correlate to a cer- tain extent with simple lines of code mea- surements.

Given these problems, there is little sense in spending lots of money on a tool that calculates only metrics. Visualization: This is essential when working on path coverage.

Good tools provide facilities for graphically viewing the results, highlighting statements or paths that have not been executed. Analysis of conditions: Look for tools that analyze the conditions needed to reach a given block of code and that even go as far as suggesting values that vari- ables must take.

This can be useful when looking at nested conditions. Language support: Unless your compa- ny has applications written in a variety of languages, a tool designed for a specific language will invariably provide better results than a generic tool set. In GUI-based applications, users have control over several concur- rent input devices, and applications can output results to multiple windows. GUI testing is usually a three-stage pro- cess. First, the tool records all keystrokes, mouse movements, and button clicks into a script file.

This recorded script can be played back to drive the application in test mode. This works well when an applica- tion behaves as expected. The second stage involves adding checks into the recorded script for handling ex- traordinary conditions.

Bug Bounty Hunters Internation al include waiting for specific events to ap- pear. In the third stage, the modified script runs against the application.

The extent to which the script can reliably handle un- expected behavior depends on the effort you put into manually programming the script. The more sophisticated programs can graphically display differences be- tween what the script expects and what the application sends to the screen.

They handle application changes automatically and maintain object-specif- ic data independently of individual scripts to ensure that the same scripts can be re- used even when an application changes during development. Internet Adds Complexity Current trends in software development challenge programmers as well as de- signers of testing tools.

The Internet is dramatically increasing the pace of the software industry, and many developers believe that there is now even less time available fortesting.

Object-oriented de- sign techniques, such as polymorphism, encapsulation, and inheritance, increase the complexity of testing through the ex- tensive use of information hiding. Farnborough, U. You can reach him by sending e-mail to derek knosof.

Now there is a way for you to get everything you need— data protection, increased performance, and a great price. DPT introduces the RAIDstation3 kits, cost-effective Ultra and Ultra Wide RAID kits to secure data and increase performance for entry- level servers, or workstations running important, storage-hungry and performance-demanding applications like video editing, CAD or electronic pre-press.

You don’t need to be a RAID expert to set up your system. Nothing could be easier! Booth No. By Eric Johnson and Christina Seeberg-Elverfeldt S he pressure on European manufacturers to produce cleaner and greener products never lets up. Take, for example, the computer industry. Unlike the rules of the s, the latest rules no longer apply only to manufac- turing sites, where chips are made, circuit boards fabri- cated, or components assem- bled.

Additionally, users are demanding environment- friendly PCs. Led by public authorities in northern Eu- rope, green-minded com- puter buyers have plumped for bans on certain materials, green guidelines for public procurement, and eco- and energy-label programs. The key to reducing envi- ronmental and financial costs of manufactured prod- ucts is the design process. A new breed of tools, collectively called design-for-environment DfE software, lets product developers analyze the environmental impact of their concepts.

These tools comprise several databases of envi- ronmental evaluation factors and aim at product designers rather than environmental experts. The core functions of DfE programs are eco-impact reduction and disposal optimization. This is not surprising, because the two functions of DfE soft- ware are distinct and inde- pendent tasks.

The idea of LCA is to find the design option that scores best when considering all effects on, for example, global warming, marine pollution, or waste- disposal problems. In disposal optimization, the idea is to model and ex- periment with the disposal options for a given product. Typically, there are many possibilities. You can dismantle or products or compo- nents, or deliver them whole for reuse, recycling, inciner- ation, landfill, or any mix- ture thereof.

In theory, the final optimized design should cause the lowest envi- ronmental burden and in- clude the optimal number of reusable parts, no hazardous material, and a high degree of recy- clable material. You must do disposal optimization before you build the product. But he warns that disassembly is not just assembly in reverse order.

Architecture of Tools At the core of DfE software is a compo- nent-inventory database. It holds large amounts of environmentally relevant data such as emissions, energy consumption, dismantling times, and recyclability indexes for electronics parts such as bat- teries, capacitors, and ICs.

A design module represents compo- nents visually and shows how they link to- gether to form the product. This module retrieves the environmental information from the inventory database and displays it on the screen. In eco-impact reduction, the software then aggregates eco-impact information into a few categories or even a single-num- ber index. These indicators compare the eco-impact of a design to a fixed reference such as human- or eco-toxicity, thereby generat- ing a relative score per eco-impact e.

The de- sign with the lowest sum of these relative scores is best in environmental terms. In disposal analysis, the software runs a sophisticated optimization process be- fore aggregation and reporting. Several vendors have developed proprietary algo- rithms that model the component struc- ture and solve for an optimum level of dis- assembly. Defining the optimum can be intricate.

Many vendors supply pro- prietary component databases and opti- mization algorithms aimed at producers of electronics equipment. Vendors point out the paucity of public domain informa- tion in this area. Naturally, product designers want to swap component databases around under one DfE system.

But because systems are incompatible, this is not yet possible. Standardization Is Coming Four competing initiatives are addressing the standardization of component data- bases, not only for electronics but other industries as well.

It is an environmental accounting method that tries to quantify the inputs and outputs throughout the life cycle of a prod- uct, assess the effects of environmental load- ings, and reduce the associated environ- mental burden. LCA is also the foundation for the eco-impact analysis in DfE software. Because the evaluation depends so much on the quality of the database, critics say LCA usually reveals that whatever design you chose is best.

Proponents, however, argue that LCA brings a desperately needed quan- titative, rational element to environmental decision-making. Despite these debates, industry and government are increasingly accepting LCA, especially in Europe. Leop tics says ,, Humam the way to lead high-tech life into the future”. Talc Hydrous Magnesiu International group in the U. All these groups concede that, at best, a broad integration of databases will need some more years and that the more spe- cialized the data, the less likely it ever will become public.

However, in an attempt to open the component inventory, some manufactur- ers have published their data. For exam- ple, about a year ago, Delta Electronics Testing published detailed material bal- ances on about 50 components common to electronics goods, plus details on the hazardous content and disposability of each material. An electronics device, for example, has a number of haz- ardous materials e. Low-Cost Tools For now, say some vendors, the answer for manufacturers is to buy what they can afford and build the rest of the expert judg- ment internally.

In this case, companies can buy cheap software and build their own expert judgment and database. Another competitive factor is integra- tion with CAD systems.

This is especially important if designers use DfE tools on a day-to-day basis. DfE tools are proliferating. By the end of the year, there will be about 15 com- mercially available tools. While some industry experts expect a shakeout of DfE tools during , the user base for DfE tools will be growing steadily.

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Trellix Is an application that, In practice, allows you to create hypertext documents that function kind of like a cross between a web site, an outline processor, and a presentation graphics package, with instant access to links elsewhere in the document. COm Enter 1 on Inquiry Card. Trellix organizes information with a document map, hyperlinks, an outline view, and dedicated screen areas. His subsequent soft- ware products have all been distinct and different — category mak- ers and breakers.

So, too, is his latest brainchild, Trellix. In brief, it lets you create hyper- text documents that function like a Web browser, outline processor, and presen- tation-graphics package rolled into one, complete with instant links to other parts of a document or accessible URLs. Paper documents are mostly read from beginning to end, while Web sites are clearly nonlinear: You branch back and forth, and when you find an interesting link, you click on it and bring it up.

This navigation ability is the essence of Trellix, which is designed for on-screen viewing. Each page can have up to four borders which are typi- cally quite wide that house navigation buttons, text elements, or graphics.

There is also an optional outline view. A Trellix document is an ActiveX document; therefore, it can link to or be linked from other Trellix or ActiveX documents, including video, spread- sheets, and various graphics, or it can con- tain URLs pointing to Web pages.

You can also include a Trellix document within an- other ActiveX container, such as a Micro- soft Office Binder document.

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The second service is the more flexible variable bit rate VBR. A VBR connection defines a sustained rate for normal use and a faster burst rate for occasional use at peak periods. The third one is unspecified bit rate UBR. This is a best-effort service: No amount of capacity is guaranteed, and any cells maybe discarded.

It provides a guaranteed mini- mum capacity. When additional network capacity is available, you can burst data above the minimum rate without risk of cell loss. UBR is directed at delay-tolerant applications e. It provides no feedback about net- work congestion to the user or applica- tion.

Thus, UBR increases the risk of dis- carded cells, which in turn increases network traffic because of the lost cells that must be retransmitted. ABR is intended for applications where network delays are a concern.

This lets the program constantly modify the sending rate, achieving the best throughput. It then shares any unused capacity in a fair and controlled fashion among all ABR sources.

The ABR mechanism uses explicit feed- back to the sources to assure that capac- ity is fairly allocated. In this case, the end systems attached to the ATM network are routers. The ABR service offers a number of benefits. First, ABR connections share available network capacity.

For use in data networks by delay-tolerant applications such as a file transfer or e- mail. No feedback about network congestion is provided. For use in data networks where delays are a concern. Congestion information lets applications send data at optimal transfer rates.

ABR is useful for on-line sessions where the network response is critical. Accordingly, the ABR service is ap- propriate for applications that can tol- erate adjustments to their transmission rates and unpredictable cell delays. Fi- nally, for ABR sources that adapt their transmission rate to the provided feed- back, a low cell-loss ratio is guaranteed. Please give this filter a name before saving it. If you continue all values for this field will be permanently deleted.

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