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Inputs Animal feeds Animal health Biocontrol Boreholes and windmills Compost and organic fertiliser Conservation tillage Crop protection Earthworms and vermicompost Fencing Fertigation Fertiliser Fleet maintenance and spare parts Forklifts Fuel and lubricants Grain storage and handling Implements Irrigation Livestock-related equipment Miscellaneous equipment Packaging Pumps and generators Seeds and seedlings Structures and building supplies Tractors, combines, balers Trailers Trucks and heavy machinery Tyres Undercover growing and hydroponics Use of animal power Water storage 4x4s and other vehicles Capacity building, science and technology Agricultural education and training Careers and employment in agriculture The Department of Higher Education and Training DHET ICT and agricultural media Mapping Plant breeding and biotechnology Precision farming Precision livestock farming Science and research Field crops and horticulture Barley Berries Canola Cassava Chicory Citrus fruit Coffee Cotton Cut-flowers and ornamental plants Deciduous fruit Dry beans Floriculture and nursery crops Forage and pastures Forestry Fruit Disclaimer: We have tried to make this information mentioned in the relevant chapters.

We will not be held responsible for consequences of actions which may arise from information contained in this book. Value add and agro-processing Agro-processing Abattoirs Baking Biofuels Canning and preserving Dairy Dried fruit Essential and vegetable oils Food safety and traceability Hunting Leather Milling Small and micro milling Winemaking Marketing and finance Agribusinesses Agricultural shows and events Auctions livestock Banks Commodity trading Co-operatives Development financial services Embassies and donor programmes Exporting Fibre trading Fresh produce markets Infrastucture and agricultural logistics Intellectual property rights Managing your finances Marketing Providers of financial services Risk management and insurance Supply chain management Roll of honour: our advertisers Without you this public resource would not be possible Organised Agriculture and agricultural services Agricultural consultants Agricultural land valuations Legal aid and legislation Organised Agriculture Tourism and travel in agriculture Update your information by calling Rainbow SA at or by writing to agriculture rainbowsa.

Introduction Africa and agriculture 1. Introduction There has been much excitement over growth prospects for Africa, based largely on the oil and raw materials available on this continent. How much of increased investment and foreign interest will filter down to the poor remains to be seen. It is imperative for Africa to sharply and sustainably increase its agricultural productivity. No country in the world has managed to develop its economy and increase standards of living for its people without first significantly increasing agricultural productivity.

About 80 per cent of Africans depend on agriculture in one way or another for their livelihood. Yet Africas yield per hectare for food crops is less than half the level in developing countries, less than 10 per cent of its arable land is irrigated, and fertiliser remains scarce only 8kg per hectare as compared to a global average of kg per hectare. African policy-makers must embrace technology and develop their own technological solutions. African research institutions are pioneering new forms of irrigation that could transform the way staple foods are cultivated, fertilisers are available that can feed nutrient deficient soils, modern crop varieties can dramatically increase yields and new farming techniques can make processes significantly more efficient.

Not only can it be done, but it has been done. In less than six years, the production of maize in Malawi has increased from under two million tons to well over 3. It is why, despite all the obstacles we face, I remain such an optimist when it comes to Africas agricultural development. Our continent has twelve times the land area of India, with only half the population to feed.

With few exceptions, the distribution of cultivable land in sub-Saharan Africa is equitable compared to many other regions of the world. Moreover, the technology already exists, demonstrated through the success of improved varieties of cassava, rice and maize. I believe that with the right commitment, policies and technologies, Africa will better the Asian agricultural miracle of the s and 80s doing so in an environmentally sustainable way. MDGs are a framework of 8 goals, 18 targets and 48 indicators to measure progress towards these goals: Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger.

Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education. Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women. Goal 4: Reduce child mortality. Goal 5: Improve maternal health.

Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability. Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development. Source: www. The document is available on the World Bank website, www. See also the related websites of www. It is estimated that agriculture accounts for around 75 per cent of employment, 40 per cent of exports and 35 per cent of GDP across the continent and it is clear that there is significant potential for the sector to compete more effectively at a global level.

At the same time, in both rural and urban areas, poor people, particularly women, depend directly on agriculture for their livelihoods and food security.

Policy makers are currently wrestling with the many complex issues associated with developing Africas agricultural sector. A wide range of well documented obstacles and bottlenecks climatic problems, huge agro diversity, lack of irrigation, decline in rural infrastructure, poor links between local markets to the global economy, coupled to an unfair global trading regime all conspire to repress Africas agricultural potential.

Agriculture as a basis for growth Aid alone will not end poverty in Africa. Market access, fair terms of trade, and a non-discriminatory financial system are equally essential in helping Africans to lift themselves out of poverty and deprivation.

The path to prosperity begins at the fields of our farmers. Yet ours is the only continent that cannot feed itself. To address poverty at its core, we need a uniquely African green revolution. Our farmers need better seeds, soils and prices for what they sell.

They need access to water, markets and credit. They need national policies that accelerate rural economic growth, investment and job creation. The declaration defines a limited number of achievable goals to be reached by the year The overall objective is to halve the proportion of the worlds population who live in absolute poverty. The entire group of UN member states, international organisations, funds, programmes and specialised agencies have committed themselves to fighting poverty and improving peoples lives.

The agricultural sector constitutes the economic backbone of most African countries, and this sector will remain the mainstay of pro-poor economic growth benefiting Africas poor. The sector is dominated by smallholders with land sizes usually not exceeding 1 hectare, which also includes livestock holders, small-scale agricultural processing enterprises and marketing actors.

Increased agricultural production is necessary to fight starvation and malnutrition. Most poor people live in the countryside, and experience from high-performing economies shows that rapid growth in agricultural production and productivity is a precondition for economic take-off and sustained poverty reduction.

Agricultural production is also critical since agricultural progress generates local demand for other goods and services. It is generally agreed that for every dollar income goes up in the agriculture sector total income in society goes up by around 2. The vision for agriculture is that the continent should, by the year attain food security in terms of both availability and affordability and ensuring access of the poor to adequate food and nutrition ; improve the productivity of agriculture to attain an average annual growth rate of 6 percent, with particular attention to small-scale farmers, especially focusing on women; have dynamic agricultural markets among nations and between regions; have integrated farmers into the market economy including better access to markets, with Africa to become a net exporter of agricultural products; achieve more equitable distribution of wealth; be a strategic player in agricultural science and technology development; practice environmentally sound production methods and have a culture of sustainable management of the natural resource base including biological resources for food and agriculture to avoid their degradation.

The objective of MAPP is to improve agricultural research, technology development and dissemination. Find more at www. The RECs consist primarily of trade blocs and, in some cases, some political and military cooperation. Due to this high proportion of overlap it is likely that some states with several memberships will eventually drop out of one or more RECs. If you are not on the regular mailing list and would like to receive free weekly e-newsletters, or you would like to update your subscription details, contact NEPAD by writing to info nepad.

Visit www. The heads of state and government in Africa have adopted the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme CAADP as a framework for the restoration of agriculture growth, rural development and food security in Africa.

Through CAADP , NEPAD draws the attention of member governments to a wide range of actions to revitalise African agriculture and provides a framework for harmonised and collaborative responsive action. Five specific opportunities for improving Africas agriculture outlined by NEPAD are: extend the area under sustainable land management and reliable water control systems; improve rural infrastructure and trade-related capacities for market access; increase food supply and reduce hunger; improve agricultural research, technology dissemination and adoption; improve responses to disasters and emergencies.

NEPADs overall vision for agriculture seeks to maximise the contribution of Africas largest economic sector to achieve a self-reliant and productive Africa that can play its full part on the world stage. In essence, NEPAD aims for agriculture to deliver broad based economic advancement, to which other economic sectors, such as petroleum, minerals and tourism, may also contribute in significant ways, but cannot achieve on the same mass scale as agriculture.

The NEPAD goal for the sector is an agricultural-led development that eliminates hunger, reduces poverty and food insecurity, opening the way for export expansion. A customs union is a free trade area with a common external tariff. Customs unions exist within these RECs e. Some contacts in Pretoria Find the directories at www. Write to info fara-africa. Find resources and news at www. Look for the Agriculture menu option. Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa Agra www.

AGRA is a dynamic, African-led partnership working across the African continent to help millions of small-scale farmers and their families lift themselves out of poverty and hunger. AGRA programmes develop practical solutions to significantly boost farm productivity and incomes for the poor while safeguarding the environment.

Business Action For Africa www. Find their eLibrary and case studies. Thousands of agricultural and related industries publications are available on the website. Developing Countries Farm Radio Network www. The DAF provides the vital linkage for diaspora Africans to become involved in Africas development as well as reap the fruits of African unity.

Find the Eldis Agriculture and Development Reporter at www. Find the Africa menu option at www. Market Access Map making import tariffs and market barriers transparent: www. The list rates sub-Saharan African countries by a set of indicators, including safety and security, rule of law, participation and human rights, sustainable economics and human development.

See heading 4. The African Economic Outlook covered 47 African countries, up from the 35 the previous year. Find reports, statistics and summaries at www. Also take a look at the Bookshop option. Pan-African Parliament www. Pax-Africa www. The contact number in Pretoria is World Bank www. Its private sector lending arm, the International Finance Corporation, agreed to almost double its investment in agribusiness in Africa in Find different publications and reports on the website.

Its annual report covers the external financing of developing countries. The Africa Competitive Report highlights areas where urgent policy action and investments are needed, while the Africa Development Indicators provide the most detailed collection of data on Africa.

A vast stretch of African savannah land that spreads across 25 countries has the potential to turn several African nations into global players in bulk commodity production, according to a study published by FAO and the World Bank in World Economic Forum www.

Find the latest international trade statistics. Some tables and charts depict trade developments from various perspectives. Find the Newsletter and Publications options. This is an independent research organisation and think-tank, focussing on Africa in its research, publications and resource library. Africa Project Access www. Read about the role that agribusinesses have to play in releasing Africas agricultural potential on the Agricultural Business Chamber website www.

Find the document Accelerated businessled growth and collective action to reach the Millennium Development Goals. A quarterly magazine The Farm Africa is put out in addition to market research and project promotion.

A number of reports related to trade and agriculture in Africa can be found on the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries website www. A number of reports related to trade and agriculture in Africa can be found here too. Executive Research Associates puts out a newsletter covering developments in Africa.

The Foundation for the Development of Africa runs several websites: www. Receive newsletters by emailing info foundation-development-africa. Institute for Global Dialogue www. The Institute of Security Studies ISS website contains a wealth of information relating to Africa, including news headlines, database of African Fact Files, abbreviations, trade agreements, publications and more. Science in Africa Africas first on-line magazine: www. Look for the Agriculture and Agri-processing menu option on their newsletters, and for articles like Agrologistics at home and abroad.

It focuses on a broad range of industries and sectors, including mining and commodities; energy oil and gas ; capital goods linked to infrastructural spend ; and agriculture. Find out more at www.

Overview Visit www. The potential of the SADC region in terms of trade and market opportunity is immense, with SADC possessing a market of some million people, compared to South Africas 47 million plus.

The picture is a mixed one. Yet while we know about the booming economic growth of countries like China and India, we are not as aware that some of the fastest growing economies in the world are right on our doorstep e.

Angola, Botswana, Mauritius and Mozambique. The success of South Africas economy agriculture included is interlinked with that of the region.

The MTSF is dealt with in the next chapter. SADC commitments and strategic objectives more specific to agriculture are contained in the Dar-es-Salaam Declaration of African country profiles The Mbendi website, www. The website has helpful overviews of the different countries. Included on this website are African exchange rates www.

A regular eNewsletter is available. The success of agriculture is linked to progress in the region. Agriculture must be competitive and profitable any gap in the market is quickly occupied by foreign competition. We have to look from a southern African perspective, not only from the South African one. Farmers and agribusinesses, our commodities be they crops e. Roleplayers See also the Africa and agriculture and Infrastructure and agrologistics chapters.

Agri Inspec is one of the divisions. Agricultural development and encourageTrade and investment Forum for Agricultural Research for farming success in Africa. The Industrial Development Corporation has been utilised by The main functions of the FANR South Africa as the primary catalyst Directorate include: for South African investment in Mozambique, South Africas development of sustainable second largest export market in food security policies and programmes; Southern Africa. Websites and publications Find the websites listed next to roleplayers listed in the Africa chapter.

The official SADC website is www. Visit other websites listed earlier in this chapter e. Find the Member countries option at www. Articles and papers are captured from countries in the Southern Africa region. Find the Research papers under the publications option on www. A number of these deal with intra-African trade e. Trade potential between South Africa and Angola. This provides information as to the grain situation within the Southern African Development Community.

Find websites of the various SADC trade missions e. Introduction South Africa and agriculture 1. Overview If you were asked to form a government and lead your country into the next decade, what would you do first? You would probably make a list of priorities, goals to steer your policies. A vibrant economy enables its people to earn a living and to improve on life as we know it. This would include functioning infrastructure, access to credit and entrepreneurial possibilities.

Social issues and political stability are vital too safety and security, a functional justice system, political stability, equal opportunities. The environment, something we take for granted, is a priority see the Resources and Good Agricultural Practice section. It is no good if the resources that support us are degraded and depleted. Many of the issues that face us as national priorities are pointed to in the National Issues category of this publication.

This is not to say that other issues are unimportant, of course, and numerous points for debate and concern are touched on elsewhere in the National Agricultural Directory. After the national elections in , Mr Jacob Zuma and his team sat down to plan the way forward for this country.

They worked out the five-year Medium Term Strategic Framework MTSF , a framework to guide governments programme in the electoral mandate period It was released by The Presidency and can be downloaded at www. The priorities outlined in the MTSF are to be translated into the Key Performance Indicators KPIs of government ministers, against which their performance over this term will be measured. Speed up growth and transform the economy to create decent work and sustainable livelihoods.

Massive programme to build economic and social infrastructure. Comprehensive rural development strategy linked to land and agrarian reform and food security. Strengthen the skills and human resource base. Improve the health profile of all South Africans. Intensify the fight against crime and corruption.

Build cohesive, caring and sustainable communities. Pursuing African advancement and enhanced international cooperation. Sustainable Resource Management and use. Building a developmental state including improvement of public services and strengthening democratic institutions. A standard model of economic growth shows that as a country develops, its primary activities agriculture included take a lower percentage in that countrys GDP , secondary activities e. The fact that agricultures share of the South African GDP is shrinking is to be expected since we have economic growth.

Agriculture grows but not at the same speed as other sectors. Because of the linkages with other sectors see next heading , some sources prefer to view agriculture in a wider context, referring to the agro-food industry instead.

Agriculture remains a cornerstone and the countrys lifeblood, whatever its share of the GDP. On a national level we are food secure because of agriculture. It is crucial for a country to maintain its agricultural sector so that its need for basic foodstuff can be met.

The First World countries know this. It is not out of spite that they hold onto those trade-distorting agricultural subsidies. Their farmers do more than just look after the countryside. Linkages and the farm Nothing happens in a vacuum, and agriculture is no exception.

It is dependent on inputs often referred to as what is upsteam and conditions which make it possible, and agriculture in turn provides the raw material for the agro-food industries downstream. By looking at it in context, we see that agriculture allows for much in our world to be what it is. The Careers and Employment in Agriculture chapter recognises this in providing brief overviews of careers that ostensibly have nothing to do with farming.

But look closer: Agriculture means that there is a market for inputs, and so we have, along with the businesses that supply tractors, vehicles and equipment, various individuals who are mechanics, managers, accountants, electricians etc. Agriculture creates a market for services.

It is an economic industry, and so economists have their role to play in charting the waters and making sense of where the ship is going. Many of these human beings are involved in the trading and marketing of agricultural produce. Financial services are required, and so the individuals who find employment as bankers and financers step up to take their place in the line.

Human beings who do social and legal work, and others whom we would designate politicians are also included in the picture because agriculture takes place within a social and political context. Because South Africa operates in a global environment, we require upto-date knowledge to be competitive, otherwise we lose our markets overseas and the local ones will be snapped up by producers from outside our country.

We could continue, but having made our point we will leave this for the reader who is intrigued by the idea to explore it further. Agriculture itself is an important source of employment, especially because of the large number of dependants per farm worker refer to the Labour and job creation chapter.

Along with food processing, it is one of the largest suppliers of jobs. Investment in agriculture and promoting the conditions under which agriculture happens is consistent with pro-poor strategies because of agricultures place in the rural areas. Agriculture and the GDP Gross Domestic Product We need food to survive, and agriculture is central to the process which brings that food to our plates.

Much is linked to the spark which is agriculture, and numerous studies point to its multiplier effect on other sectors: a Rand spent in agriculture achieves more than a Rand spent anywhere else see heading 3.

Agriculture provides the economic base on which most of our rural areas are based. Increasingly, it is an urban activity too see The Urban Question chapter. According to the Census of Commercial Agriculture , the number of farming units is 39 , as opposed to 45 in GDP Gross Domestic Product is a measure of economic production and often standard of living of a country.

Agricultures share of the GDP is placed at somewhere between 2. Websites and publications The reader is pointed to daily and weekly sources of information in the ICT and agriculture media chapter, and relevant publications and websites are listed in almost every chapter of the book. Find the quarterly economic overviews on www. Find also the Trends in the Agricultural Sector documents at the same place. Roleplayers within the different sectors are listed in the relevant chapters, mostly under the headings Companies Involved, Training and research and Roleplayers.

Of particular relevance to agriculture, the following changes were made to government departments after the election: Agriculture was separated from Land Affairs whilst picking up Forestry and Fisheries. Rural development a new ministerial mandate linked up with Land Reform. Find information about and contact details for all government departments at www.

The reader is encouraged to visit www. Contact details and names of directorates are available, in January , under the Divisions menu option. Introduction The importance of rural development 1. Overview Poverty affects millions of people, with the majority of them being women and children living in rural areas.

Of the 17 million poor people in South Africa, at least 11 million live in rural areas. The rural economy is inextricably linked to agricultural production. Even if these people are not engaged in agriculture, they rely on nonfarm employment and income that depends in some way or another on agriculture The challenge for the agricultural sector is not only to produce more food, but also to create income-generating employment for poor people inside and outside agriculture, on a sustainable basis.

Moreover, each provincial government has completed, or is completing, a rural development plan that identifies focus areas and nodes, based on structured applications of a range of criteria. The rest live on commercial farms and in the small towns. Women form the majority of the rural population and female-headed households are particularly disadvantaged. Three quarters of the children in the rural areas live in households with incomes below the minimum subsistence level.

The poorest households also have low levels of literacy and education, difficult and time-consuming access to water, fuel and other services, and few opportunities of gainful employment. This results in high levels of malnutrition, morbidity and mortality of children. An understanding of the sources of rural household incomes provides another perspective on the nature of rural poverty: 4.

Women head the majority of these households. From the BEE Commission Report, earlier this decade, you could add: Rural housing is often substandard or nonexistent, and many people are migrants working in urban areas. Many of them are still living in urban dormitories with attendant difficulties maintaining family and social ties.

As a result, the rural-urban continuum takes a particular form in South Africa. The level of interdependence between rural communities and distant large cities is higher than elsewhere, but there is a less organic linkage between rural areas and the towns near them. Rural empowerment is directly relevant to the following elements of the Codes of Good Practice: Ownership. Broad-based groupings are often rural communities or have a rural component.

Enterprise Development ED. While ED is not explicitly directed at rural communities, it is in keeping with the spirit of the Codes to try and channel your ED spending to rural recipients. Consider that R of ED spending in a rural community has the potential to impact far more people than the same amount of spending in an urban community.

This is because of the high ratios of bread winner to dependents in typical rural communities. Socio-economic Investment. Being born in a rural area or the countryside should not condemn people to a life of poverty and underdevelopment, says President Jacob Zuma. Our vision for the development of rural areas arises from the fact that people in the rural areas also have a right to basic necessities. They have a right to electricity, water, flush toilets, roads, entertainment and sport centres.

They have a right to shopping centres, good schools and other amenities like their compatriots in urban areas, said the President. He said that people living in rural areas also have the right to be helped with farming so that they can grow vegetables and raise livestock to be able to feed their families.

Achieving this is one of governments top priorities. Speaking at the launch of the Comprehensive Rural Development Programme CRDP aimed at radically transforming rural areas, the President said government would not rest for as long as there were rural dwellers who were unable to make a decent living from the land on which they live. Source: Buanews 17 Aug National strategy and government departments The vision of the Comprehensive Rural Development Programme CRDP is to enable rural people to play a meaningful role in the economy, thereby dealing effectively with rural poverty through the productive use and management of natural resources at their disposal.

Read about the CRDP at www. Ideas for the Urban Business Public relations value from rural BEE has a high level of credibility because of its inherent challenges, and creative thinking around your business model and strategy can reveal some excellent opportunities to grow your business and benefit rural communities at the same time.

The first step lies in understanding your business strategy and seeing where a rural initiative could further your business aims and lead to empowerment with little or no additional expenditure. Take for example a footwear manufacturing company struggling in the city with high levels of competition, sophisticated consumers and high running costs. Sponsorship of a well-planned rural community upliftment project such as an Easter soccer tournament, could: cost very little relative to the cost of sponsoring a similar event in the city; reach a much wider audience many urban dwellers return to their rural homes over Easter anyway; expose a large number of people to the brand for the first time, in a setting where there are few other brands competing for their attention; yield great PR value through press releases and coverage of the event in the urban newspapers.

The company could follow this up by building relationships with rural footwear retailers to ensure their products are stocked in anticipation of new orders, and even count some of the cost of the investment in the retailers as Enterprise Development spending e. This could be coupled with a bursary scheme paid for as Socio-economic Investment that is offered as a prize in a marketing campaign to further extend brand awareness to the local community. Rural empowerment does not therefore have to mean an entirely new BEE strategy, but can be as straight-forward as looking at your current plan and working in a rural impact wherever it makes business sense.

Agri-Africa Consultants Tel: www. The major constraints are the restrictive institutional arrangements and lack of skills that prevent the resources both natural and other from being mobilized and used sustainably. By mobilising resources, creating enterprises and increasing local economic activity the taxation base for municipalities to increase revenue is also increased, helping these institutions to become more sustainable. The government has, and continues to develop strategies and policies to address rural development.

These are generally sound but many fail to impact on the ground. In our opinion it is imperative that rural development is seen as a business, in the sense that the available resources natural, community and financial need to be mobilised, co-ordinated and managed.

To have longer term impact the intitiative must be sustainable. Sustainability is synonymous with profit, or better still with some regular perceived net benefit. This mobilisation, co-ordination and management must be at grass roots level ie per village or area, and be the responsibility of a project champion who is tasked with making this happen. Source: notes written to the editor by Womiwu Rural Development. Roleplayers Agricultural Colleges Find details of all Colleges in the Agricultural education and training chapter.

Regional office contacts can be found on the website. Here we will mention only eight. Global Donor Platform for Rural Development www. Find details on the website about the RuralInvest toolkit comprising training courses, manuals and software. The Schwab Foundation for Social Entrepreneurship www. Rural Finance Learning Centre www. National Government Departments Contact details for all government departments can be found at www. Environmental Monitoring Group Tel: www.

Find the rural development pages under the Other menu option. Department of Rural Development and Land Reform www. There is rural transport, rural education, rural health, rural job creation, rural infrastructure, and so on. One hopes that a cluster of government departments rolls up their sleeves to develop the rural areas and bring hope. Imagine if it were led by the economic powerhouse of government: Treasury, Economic Development, and the National Planning Commission!

Under the Constitution, local government is tasked with facilitating local economic development, including agricultural development. The rural municipalities and provincial government are challenged by the National Spatial Development Framework to facilitate development in line with the economic potential of its area of jurisdiction.

Furthermore, the financial reality of non-affordability of municipal services to meet basic needs – owing to weak local economic bases – emphasizes the need for Local Municipalities to actively pursue their LED mandates.

This entails creating an enabling environment, stimulating economic growth, job creation, redistribution of economic opportunities, and also, black economic empowerment. The resource base of rural municipalities is mostly agriculture driven and in the long-term the capacity and affordability of these municipalities to improve service delivery is tied to the fortunes of the rural sector.

ACAT Tel: www. The plan includes selling produce to tourists and stores in the region, and so generate revenue and work opportunities. Read about their rural work on www. Local Government Business Network visit www. Links to all municipalities can be found on the website.

Over 13 million citizens received social assistance benefits in , and of these beneficiaries nine million are children. Thusong Service Centre www. A business plan for the initiative seeks to establish a Thusong service Centre in each of South Africas municipalities. To aid government in its quest to improve the quality of drinking water served in rural communities, the Water Research Commission WRC has published a new set of guidelines for small water treatment plant operators. Provincial contact details are available at www.

The national office may be contacted at The agricultural SETA www. Find their details in the Science and Research chapter. Sustainability A sustainable community ideally does not depend on externalities for its functioning and survival. It would incorporate the following:. It grows social capital. Fosters conditions for society to thrive and enhances its capacity to meet its needs: Level 1: Natural systems are not damaged. To do so will undermine and limit that community sooner or later.

Level 2: This relates to conditions at the social system level: a decision made elsewhere might result in people not having access to resources, or to education.

Any power that does not recognise interdependence is not sustainable. Local knowledge, wisdom, culture are nurtured, tapped; this is reflected in decisions made at this level. Social and ecological implications are linked. New and existing communities should have some primary activity in its economic make-up. This is important for the creation of a diverse local economy. Towns should not depend on cities for their survival.

It maintains and fosters diversity. Biological, social and economic. The degradation of natural systems is taboo over-harvesting, loss of biodiversity, monocultures, etc. Diversity is natures design framework. It governs itself. The smaller and more local the government, the more participation there is and the more legitimate, accountable and effective it becomes. It is designed with the intention to facilitate all of the above. Design does not stop at the house, street, landscaping, cadastral subdivisions or planning regulations.

It asks questions about what waste is produced, where it goes and how it is managed. It asks questions about how the community is managed and how it earns its keep. It asks questions about how the habitat is enriched by the resident community. In short, the designers for there are many must create frameworks which nurture communities and their habitats – not to limit or constrain through regulations, for regulation is a signal of design failure.

It does not export waste. Limit the waste flow. Keep the biological and technological waste streams separate and upcycle it where waste is used as resource for the next step in the communitys metabolism. This approach follows natures dictum of waste is food: it eliminates pollution. Create jobs from the waste! It does not import resources. Resources are seen as: material, energy, labour, knowledge, capital and wisdom. Introduction Agriculture in the provinces 1.

Overview In terms of the Constitution of South Africa, Act of , agricultural support to farmers is vested in the provincial governments, which provide farmers with a range of services. The national government retains the overall regulatory and policy functions and agricultural trade and marketing.

Find the links to the Provincial Departments of Agriculture websites at www. For a list of provincial extension officers, see the Emerging Farmer Support chapter. Find also the enormously useful provincial overviews at www. Detail is given on types of vegetation, agricultural activities in the province and much more. Find the details of provincial farmer unions in the Organised Agriculture chapter. The National Council of Provinces NCOP provides provinces with a forum in which to engage with the national government on matters concerning areas of shared national and provincial legislative powers.

The NCOP also oversees the programmes and activities of national government relating to provincial and local government matters. It meets four times a year. Quarterly news and research magazine. Subscriptions: Magriet de Lange Tel: Information sheets. Eastern Cape www. You will find Agriculture under Departments. Selecting this menu option will take you to www. The services rendered by this Department are aimed towards realising the vision of Global success, Competitive, Inclusive, Socially responsible and in balance with Nature.

The services are divided into 6 programmes, supported by Administration Corporate and Financial services. An extensive list of contacts is offered on www. Cacadu A general list of contacts can be found at www. This involves identifying and packaging agri-business and agri-processing opportunities. Find contact details on the advert opposite. Find the Telephone Directory on the website.

Private Bag X Kimberley North West Invest North West, the provinces trade and investment promotion agency has identified seven agricultural clusters as key areas to drive the provinces economy and develop existing capacity. These clusters, offering potential investors viable business opportunities include: Renewable energy; essential oil production; goat meat processing; beef beneficiation; edible oils; indigenous medicinal plants and aquaculture.

Other opportunities include fruit and vegetable canning and leather production. For additional information on any of these agricultural initiatives contact Invest North West: call or visit www. Overview At present we rely on a food delivery chain that is unsustainable at all points but is so remote from our awareness that we take it for granted and seldom question its ethics or environmental impact.

How will cities feed themselves as Climate Change and Peak Oil begin to impact on our lives? Prof Michael Rudolph. The rapid urbanisation that is taking place goes together with a rapid increase in urban poverty and urban food insecurity. Most cities in developing countries have great difficulties to cope with this development and are unable to create sufficient formal employment opportunities for the poor.

They also have increasing problems with the disposal of urban wastes and waste water and maintaining air and river water quality. Urban agriculture provides a complementary strategy. Next to food security, urban agriculture contributes to local economic development, poverty alleviation and social inclusion of the urban poor and women in particular, as well as to the greening of the city and the productive reuse of urban wastes. Urban agriculture may take place in locations inside the cities intraurban or in the peri-urban areas.

The activities may take place on the homestead on-plot or on land away from the residence off-plot , on private land owned, leased or on public land parks, conservation areas, along roads, streams and railways , or semi-public land schoolyards, grounds of schools and hospitals.

Urban agriculture includes food products, from different types of crops grains, root crops, vegetables, mushrooms, fruits and animals poultry, rabbits, goats, sheep, cattle, pigs, guinea pigs, fish, etc. Often the more perishable and relatively high-valued vegetables and animal products and by-products are favoured. In most cities in developing countries, an important part of urban agricultural production is for self-consumption, with surpluses being traded.

However, the importance of the market-oriented urban agriculture, both in volume and economic value, should not be underestimated as will be shown later. Products are sold at the farm gate, by cart in the same or other neighbourhoods, in local shops, on local farmers markets or to intermediaries and supermarkets.

Mainly fresh products are sold, but part of it is processed for own use, cooked and sold on the streets, or processed and packaged for sale to one of the outlets mentioned above.

Urban agriculture is an integral part of the urban system. Publications and websites Guidelines for Urban and peri-urban animal agriculture, compiled by the Directorate Animal and Aquaculture Production. Call Standard Banks AgriReviews frequently topics related to urban agriculture. One such article is referred to under the opening heading. Another article can be found in the 1st quarter of , entitled Urbanisation. Find these at www. It contains concepts, presentations and features.

Find the publications, videos and other resources. Find the different urban option at www. The greater the development in the rural areas in line with the Integrated and Sustainable Rural Development Strategy ISRDS , the less will be the reason for the rapid urban migration which places such strain on available resources in the urban centres, leading to declining living conditions there.

Urban agriculture Urban agriculture can be defined shortly as the growing of plants and the raising of animals within and around cities. The most striking feature of urban agriculture, which distinguishes it from rural agriculture, is that it is integrated into the urban economic and ecological system.

Such linkages include the use of urban residents as labourers, use of typical urban resources like organic waste as compost and urban wastewater for irrigation , direct links with urban consumers, direct impacts on urban ecology positive and negative , being part of the urban food system, competing for land with other urban functions, being influenced by urban policies and plans, etc.

He can be reached at and at Organic micro-farming and karela elsenburg. Municipality Tel: Afesis-corplan japhtam tshwane. Ukuvuna Permaculture is an independent private company that focuses on the development of practical skills. Its Permaculture urban training centre is well established. Siyakhana Food Garden Project c. Siyakhana conducts inter-andmultidisciplinary research and provides design, training and implementation services to private individuals and to organisations.

Visser capetown. The citys Urban Agricultural Policy a pdf document can be found on its website www. There are currently two urban agriculture centres in the city one in Atlantis and one in Phillipi. National issues Biosecurity 1. Overview Biosecurity is a relatively new word, derived from biological security.

Biosecurity covers the introduction of animal pests and diseases, zoonoses, plant pests, the introduction and release of genetically modified organisms GMOs and their products, and the introduction and management of invasive alien species and genotypes. Biosecurity is a strategic and integrated approach that encompasses the policy and regulatory frameworks including instruments and activities that analyse and manage risks in the sectors of food safety, animal life and health, and plant life and health, including associated environmental risk.

The information in this chapter is weighted on the part of livestock. The reader is asked to also consult other, related chapters of relevance.

A farmer that tries to avoid essential preventative treatment and spending is acting unwisely: animal diseases are detrimental to the economy of the country, to say nothing of human and animal health. The most important step in disease control is to minimise commingling and movement of cattle.

Traffic control includes traffic onto your operation and traffic patterns within your operation. It is important to understand traffic includes more than vehicles. All animals and people must be considered. Animals other than cattle include dogs, cats, horses, wildlife, rodents and birds. Sanitation addresses the disinfection of materials, people and equipment entering the operation and the cleanliness of the people and equipment on the operation.

Biosecurity systems on farms are to a large extent the responsibility of the individual producers and are designed to protect the producers own interests. Implementation of a biosecurity plan requires an understanding of the epidemiological principles of disease including the host species, agent disease and environmental factors which must be managed using objective cost effective decision making processes.

For a stock farmer, the four legs of a Biosecurity Programme are: A structured and effective immunisation programme should be in place and adhered to. Minimise contacts with possible infectious agents or animals. Animals introduced into a herd should be certified disease and parasite free. Eliminate sources of infection. Control the movement of people amongst farms and farm animals.

South African Pork Producers Organisation SAPPO The goal of biosecurity is to stop transmission of disease causing agents by preventing, minimising or controlling cross-contamination of body fluids feces, urine, saliva, etc. Biosecurity management practices are designed to prevent the spread of disease by minimizing the movement of biologic organisms and their vectors viruses, bacteria, rodents, flies, etc. Biosecurity can be very difficult to maintain because the interrelationships between management, biologic organisms and biosecurity are very complex.

While developing and maintaining biosecurity is difficult, it is the cheapest, most effective means of disease control available, and no disease prevention program will work without it.

Infectious diseases can be spread between operations by: the introduction of diseased cattle or healthy cattle incubating disease; introduction of healthy cattle who have recovered from disease but are now carriers; vehicles, equipment, clothing and shoes of visitors or employees who move between herds; contact with inanimate objects that are contaminated with disease organisms; carcasses of dead cattle that have not been disposed of properly; feedstuffs, especially high risk feedstuff which could be contaminated with feces; impure water surface drainage water, etc.

Roleplayers Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Find notes on all of the directorates at www. The Plant Health menu option at www. Find the presentation Phytosanitary requirements for imports and exports of plants, plant products and other regulated articles, given by this Marianna Theyse of this directorate, at www.

Provincial contacts are listed in the Animal Health chapter. Find the Contacts menu option at www. Profiles, documents e. The statutory levies for the different sectors address, amongst Directorate: Agricultural Disaster other issues, the health and hygiene Management systems in those sectors. Tel: Animal Health Act, Act No. Objectives This Act provides for measures to promote animal health and to control animal diseases. It assigns executive authority with regard to certain provisions of this Act to provinces.

It regulates the importation and exportation of animals and things and establishes animal health schemes.


 
 

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